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The Cullinan Diamond

By 19.06 September 20th, 2018 No Comments

The Cullinan Diamond Mine, also known as the Premier Diamond Mine, and now owned by Petra Mines, close to the small town of Cullinan near Pretoria, is the source of many of the world’s largest and rare blue diamonds, found in the kimberlite pipe of potassic volcanic rock. This mine’s most famous claim to fame is its discovery of the Cullinan Diamond (rough stone seen below), only nine metres from the surface in its No 2 mine, by the mine superintendent, Mr Frederick Wells, on January 26, 1905. Wells extracted the rough stone using a pocket knife. The stone’s dimensions were 3⅞ inches long x 2¼ inches wide x 2⅝ inches high, making it twice the size of any other diamond ever found. The stone was weighed at the mine office, tipping the scales at 3,106 carats (621.35 grams/1⅓ lbs).

The stone was named after the mine’s owner, Sir Thomas Cullinan, who was an influential building contractor who purchased the Elandsfontein Farm in 1903 on which ground was the mine. The diamond was displayed at the Standard Bank in Johannesburg, prior to being sent to England, to the mine’s London agent, Sigismund Neumann, in an unmarked postal box – a replica of this unique stone was publicly taken on a ship accompanied by detectives!

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Publicity photo of the Cullinan rough stone being handed from Fred Wells (right)
Frederick Wells (right) hands the diamond to Thomas McHardy, the mine’s manager (centre), who hands it to Thomas Cullinan (left)

It was conveyed to Buckingham Palace for inspection by King Edward VII and then placed on sale in London in April 1905 but remained unsold until the Transvaal Colony Government bought it for £150,000 as a gift for King Edward VII for his 66th birthday on November 09, 1907. It was presented to him at Sandringham House, in the presence of the Queens of Norway and Spain. King Edward VII accepted the gift “for myself and my successors” ensuring that “this great and unique diamond be kept and preserved among the historic jewels which form the heirlooms of the Crown”.

The King commissioned the cutting to Asscher Brothers Diamond Company in Amsterdam. Abraham Asscher foiled a possible theft, much like the stone’s journey from South Africa to England.  He carried the stone in his pocket when he returned to Amsterdam by train and ferry, while a Royal Navy ship carried the empty box across the North Sea – the captain himself did not know of this ruse!

Joseph Asscher studied the stone for many months. Four of its eight surfaces were smooth, indicating that it once had been part of a much larger stone broken up by natural forces. It had a blue-white colour and contained a pocket of air, which manifested Newton’s rings (rainbow colours) at certain angles, as well as a black spot in its centre which was a sign of severe internal strain which made the cutting stressful, to say the least!

Asscher cut the large stone into two stones which weighed 1,977ct and 1,040ct. These were then cut into nine major stones, 96 brilliants and 9.5ct of unpolished pieces.  In all, splitting and cutting the diamond took eight months, with three people working 14 hours per day to complete the task. The nine major stones were simply named Cullinan I to IX and several of these stones were incorporated into the Crown Jewels, including the two largest  stones, Cullinan I (The Great Star of Africa) and Cullinan II (The Lesser Star of Africa) which now form

part of the British Crown Jewels exhibited in the Tower of London. Some of the 96 brilliant stones were used in the Crown Jewels with the larger stones and the others were made into magnificent pieces of jewellery owned by the British Royal Family. The smaller fragments were kept by the Asscher Brothers in Amsterdam and were purchased by the South African Government and given to Queen Mary in 1910.

The Cullinan diamond is the largest uncut diamond ever discovered. However, when it comes to polished diamonds, the Great Star of Africa (530.4ct) lost its title as the biggest polished diamond to the Golden Jubilee Diamond (545.67ct) in 1985.

cullinan-diamond-settingCullinan I, aka the Great Star of Africa (530.4ct), a pear-shaped stone, is mounted in the head of the Sovereign’s Sceptre with Cross. This stone can be removed and hung as a pendant, either on its own or from the Cullinan II diamond in a brooch – tiny platinum loops on their edges allow this dual function.

Cullinan II, aka the Second Star of Africa (317.4ct), a rectangular cushion-shaped diamond, is mounted in the front of the circlet part of the Imperial State Crown. An incredible 2868 diamonds adorn this magnificent piece of art. Note the platinum loops.

queen-marry-crown-jewels

Cullinan III, aka the Lesser Star of Africa (94.4ct), is a pear-shaped diamond originally set in the coronation crown made for Queen Mary, consort of King George V. At present, Cullinan III is usually worn as a brooch, in a configuration that includes Cullinan IV.

 

Cullinan IV, also aka the Lesser Star of Africa (63.6ct), is a square cushion-shaped stone originally set in the coronation crown made for Queen Mary, consort of King George V. At present, Cullinan III is usually worn as a brooch, in a configuration that includes Cullinan IV.

Queen Elizabeth II refers to the brooch with Cullinan III and IV as ‘Granny’s Chips’; she has worn the priceless piece just six or seven times during her reign.

Cullinan IV, also aka the Lesser Star of Africa

Queen Mary wearing Cullinans I and II as a brooch on her chest, Cullinan III as a pendant on the Coronation Necklace and Cullinan IV in the base of her crown, below the Koh-i-Noor.

Cullinan V, weighing 18.8ct, is a heart-shaped stone set in the centre of a brooch and surrounded by smaller stones. Queen Mary wore this brooch together with Cullinan VI and VII and today is a favourite brooch of Queen Elizabeth.

Cullinan V, weighing 18.8ct, is a heart-shaped stone set in the centre of a brooch

 

Cullinan VI, weighing 8.8ct, is a marquise cut diamond on a brooch with the Cullinan VIII. These two diamonds can also be placed in a  different brooch to complement the brooch containing the Cullinan V.

Cullinan VI, weighing 8.8ct, is a marquise cut diamond on a brooch with the Cullinan VIII

The Cullinan VI (lower, 8.80ct) and Cullinan VIII (upper, 6.80ct)

Cullinan VII is a marquise-shaped stone that hangs from a green emerald necklace that was worn by Queen Mary.

Cullinan VII is a marquise-shaped stone that hangs from a green emerald necklace

Cullinan VIII (6.8ct) is combined in a brooch with the Cullinan VI diamond (see VI above).

Cullinan IX (4.4ct) is the smallest of the Royal Cullinan collection. It is a pear-shaped stone set into a platinum ring designed for Queen Mary in 1911.

cullinan-IX-ring

Seven other major diamonds, weighing a total of 208.29 carats (41.66 g), are privately owned by Queen Elizabeth II, who inherited them from her grandmother, Queen Mary, in 1953. The Queen also owns minor brilliants and a set of unpolished fragments. 

Cullinan Polished Nine Major Stones

Cullinan Polished Nine Major Stones

Top: II,I and III    Bottom: VIII, VI, IV, V, VII and IX

Cullinan Unpolished Stones

Cullinan Unpolished Stones

 

Other famous diamonds found in the Cullinan Mine

The Golden Jubilee Diamond (rough weight 755.50ct, polished weight 545.65ct). This large golden yellow diamond stone found in the 1980s, is the second largest diamond found  in the Cullinan Mine. It has been named after the 50th anniversary ascent of Thailand’s King Bhumibol and Queen Sirakit and is seen today in the Royal Museum at Pimmimak in Bangkok.

The Jonker Diamond (rough weight 726.50ct, polished weight 126.65ct).
A poor diamond digger, Johannes Makani, worked for Johannes Jacobus Jonker. In 1934 he found a 726ct blue-white rough stone which was purchased a year later by Harry Winston in New York. Winston cut this stone into 13 pieces, the Jonker Diamond being the largest piece.
The Centenary Diamond (rough weight 599.00ct, polished weight 273.85ct).
This stone was discovered in 1986 and was kept ‘under wraps’ until being announced at the  producer’s 100-year centenary banquet in 1988. Its final form is a heart-shaped, flawless  top-colour stone, surpassed only by the Cullinans I and II.

The Niarchos Diamond (rough weight 426.50ct, polished weight 128.25ct).
In 1954 Stavros Niarchos bought this magnificent $2,000,000 stone for his wife! Bernard de Haan, Harry  Winston’s chief cutter, cut it into a large pear-shaped stone and two smaller ones. He named the largest stone The Ice Queen as it would be difficult to find this stone if it was  immersed in a bucket of ice cubes!

The Taylor-Burton Diamond (rough weight 240.80ct, polished weight 69.42ct). This stone was found in 1966 and was sent to New York to Harry Winston. It was cut into two Stones and the larger pear-shaped 162ct stone was set by Cartier into a neck piece and was auctioned in 1972. It was bought by Richard Burton as a 40th birthday gift for his wife, the legendary Elizabeth Taylor. It is currently owned by Lebanese diamond dealer, Robert Mouawad.

The Premier Rose Family Diamonds (rough weight 353.9ct, polished weight 137.02ct). In 1978 Jacob Mouw from the Mouw Diamond Cutting Works bought this gem and named it after his wife, Rose. He cut this very large colourless stone into three pieces. The larger of the three has the name Premier Rose and weighs 137.02ct, the 31.48ct stone is called Little Rose and the 2.11ct piece named Baby Rose.

Another very large rough stone was found in the Premier Mine in May 2008 – this 101.27ct stone the size of a ping pong ball was sold at Christie’s in Hong Kong for 46.2 million.

Clarity

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Color

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Carat

The international unit of weight, used for measuring diamonds and gemstones. 1 carat is equal to 200 milligrams, or 0.2 grams.

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Clarity

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Color

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Cut

Nothing is more impactful on a precious stone’s brilliance than its cut. The cut refers to the angles and proportions of a diamond. Known in the industry as ‘fire’, referring to the coloured light reflected, and ‘brilliance’ for the uncoloured light. The cut of a diamond – its form and finish, its depth and width, the uniformity of the facets – determines its beauty. The skill with which a diamond is cut determines how well it reflects and refracts light. A diamond should be cut proportionally, neither very shallow not very deep, given its dimensions. A diamond’s cut is its most important characteristics and a measure of its apparent beauty.

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Certificate

A diamond certificate or grading report provides an expert opinion on the quality of the diamond and is provided by an independent gemology lab. Trained gemologists with specialized equipment measure the weight and dimensions of the diamond and assess quality characteristics such as cut, color, and clarity. Brilliant Earth diamonds are certified by the world’s leading gem grading labs including GIA, IGI, and GCAL.

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Depth

The height of a diamond, from the culet to the table referred as a Depth of the diamond . Depth % is the height of the diamond as a percentage of the girdle diameter.

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Table

Table referred as the largest facet of a gemstone, located at the top. Table % is the table width as a percentage of the girdle diameter.

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Polish

Polish refers to the smoothness of the exterior of a diamond. Polish is graded from Ideal, Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, or Poor. Polish grades of Good or higher have the least effect on the brilliance of the diamond and recommended by us for the finest quality jewelry.

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Symmetry

Symmetry refers to the angles to which the facets are aligned. Basically exactness of the shape of a diamond, and the symmetrical arrangement and even placement of the facets. If facets are misaligned, the diamond may poorly reflect light. Symmetry is graded from Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, or Poor. We recommends diamonds with Good or higher symmetry grades.

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Fluorescence

Describes the diamond’s response to ultraviolet light. In diamonds with strong or very strong fluorescence, there may be some interference with the flow of light which causes a milky or oily appearance. Canadian diamonds almost always have none to slight fluorescence.

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Measurements

Diamonds with “fancy” shapes are measured according to their length, width and depth. These diamonds will have a longer axis (the biggest measurement) and a shorter one that represents their width. The depth indicates the measurement of the diamond from the bottom to the top. The relative proportions of a diamond ultimately affect its quality and value.

Round-shaped diamonds are never perfectly round even though they may seem to be that way when you look at them. There is a tiny variation between maximum and minimum diameter, so dimensions are reflected as measurements of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and depth.

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